Brunel University, School of Engineering and Design, London, United KingdomRenewable Energy, Global Warming, and the Impact of Power Electronics
Global energy consumption is increasing in a dramatic manner due to the increase of world population. Most of our energy comes from fossil fuels which cause global warming problem due to burning these fuels. There are many affects such as raising the sea level, bringing drought in tropical regions near the equator, increasing hurricanes, tornadoes and floods, and spreading diseases.
Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2006, about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.4% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3.4% from new renewables.
This presentation particularly highlights the impact of power electronics in solving or mitigating this problem and supporting renewable energy.
Optimization of Green energy utilization system using Bifilar Coil Permanent Magnet Generator
Maximum Power Point Tracking system is applied for stabilizing energy flow into the grid via the single phase inverter. The patent based Bifilar Coil Permanent Magnet (BCPM) generator is developed, investigated, tested in the laboratory conditions and integrated into the Maximum Power Point Tracking system. The block diagram of proposed system is presented. Experimental and measuremens results are obtained. In this study, efficiency of Smart Grid Tied System based on BCPM generator and results with regard to both theoretical and experimental analysis will be presented and discussed.
Gent University, Department of Applied Physics, Gent, BelgiumProspects for nuclear fusion as a sustainable energy source
In a most profound sense, mankind's quality of life depends on an acceptable response to the continually rising demand for energy. To be able to satisfy our future energy needs, we therefore have to invest in all viable energy options, compatible with our environment. Energy quality criteria will become most important in the future: energy production must be not only economically, but also environmentally and societally acceptable. The number of conceivable non-fossil candidates which in the long-term could substantially contribute to base load electricity generation is very limited: renewables, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Fusion is the least developed of the three but it holds the promise of being a safe, inexhaustible and rather clean energy production method. As such it could become the best compromise between nature and the energy needs of mankind. The development of nuclear fusion as an energy source is one of the most complex scientific and technical tasks ever undertaken for non-military purposes and will still span several human generations. Great progress has been made in magnetic fusion in the last decades. Since the start of controlled fusion research, a 10 million-fold improvement in the fusion triple product (density times temperature times confinement time) has been obtained verging to reactor conditions. Fusion research entered a new era in 2005 with the international agreement on the construction site of ITER at Cadarache (close to Aix-en-Provence in France). Construction has started in 2009. There should be no illusions about the technical difficulty or the time required bringing even the D-T reaction to a commercially viable system. However, there is no indication up to now to doubt that fusion could be made practical and successful. History has repeatedly proven that major technological projects (not hampered by scientific limits) have finally reached a breakthrough. Given the potential advantages of nuclear fusion compared to the risks and dangers of all other alternatives for base load electricity generation and given its potential contribution to long-term sustainable world development, it is our duty towards future generations to continue the fusion effort without delay and with full commitment
Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Istanbul, TurkeyBiogas recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes
There is an ongoing search for developing sustainable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy because of the fact that energy demand is increasing rapidly. Although energy supply from renewable sources has been improved significantly in the last decades, its contribution is still quite limited. Not only does the amount of organic wastes generated from human, animal and agricultural activities increase but environmental pollution problems also grow rapidly with world population. Unfortunately, waste treatment alone can not respond effectively to these challenges. Thus, new waste management strategies should combine cost-effective treatment technologies and recycling. Organic wastes including human excreta, wastewater and animal wastes contain energy which may be recovered. Mostly, the treatment and recycling of organic wastes are accomplished by biological processes employing microbial activities. Among the biological processes, anaerobic digestion of organic substrates and mixed wastes/residues is considered as one of the sustainable waste-to-energy technologies. By anaerobic digestion, the volume of the organic waste is reduced and stabilized, a residue (compost) that can be used for soil conditioning is produced, and energy in the form of methane is recovered.
In this course; fundamentals of anaerobic treatment process, reactor or system configurations used in anaerobic treatment, biogas production; energy recovery potential; design and operation of conventional anaerobic sludge digesters; co-digestion concept and its applications will be discussed. Within this scope; comparative evaluation of anaerobic processes with other treatment systems regarding microbiology, biochemistry, substrate degradation and biomass will be also explained.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Atilim University, Ankara, TurkeyCurrent Trends in Nuclear Energy with Sustainability and Renewable Aspects
Nuclear Energy is released as a result of nuclear reactions, in which atomic nuclei participate. The number of possible nuclear reactions is extremely large. Out of many nuclear reactions known, those resulting in fission and fusion have at present the greatest practical significance for energy production. The absorption of a neutron by most isotopes involves radioactive capture, with the excitation energy appearing as a gamma ray. In certain heavy elements, notably uranium and plutonium and other actinides, an alternate consequence is observed-the splitting of the nucleus into two massive fragments, a process called fission. Each fission reaction releases energy of ~ 200 MeV/nucleus. We note that 1 eV = 10-19 Joule. When two light nuclear particles combine or "fuse" together, energy is also released because the product nuclei have less mass than the original particles. Such fusion reactions can be caused by bombarding targets with charged particles, using an accelerator, or by raising the temperature of a gas and consequently average kinetic energy of the particles to a high enough level for nuclear reactions to take place. The most promising reactions make use of the isotope deuterium, 2H1, abbreviated D. It is present in water as heavy hydrogen with abundance of only 0.015%, i.e., there is one atom of 2H1 for every 6700 atoms of 1H1. Since our planet has enormous amounts of water, the fusion fuel available is almost inexhaustible. At academic level, nuclear energy offers a great spectrum of scientific/research activities. Nuclear energy research at Atılım and Gazi Universities is conducted at the forefront in the field. Research topics cover a large spectrum, such as space nuclear reactors, Generation IV reactors, Fusion reactors and fusion/fission hybrids, thorium utilization, spent fuel regeneration/reutilization, nuclear waste transmutation, etc. Also ways to renewable aspects of conventional nuclear reactors are investigated intensively.
Sheffield University, School of Architecture, Sheffield, UKEnergy Efficient Building Design
This course deals with technologies and techniques for the design of buildings and the built environment. The purpose is to enable such design to be assessed and optimised with respect to energy demand considering building fabric and technologies. It is a course which aims to develop a good understanding of the subject material and techniques that are required for the successful energy efficient design of buildings and their surroundings. Such design should be carried out in a climate sensitive manner. The structure of the course is aimed to help students focus on climatic and environmental issues and their relationship with architectural design and the built environment, and to use the skills and understanding acquired to analyse and improve such design.
Tebessa University, Department of Electrical Engineering, AlgeriaCurrent and Future Development of Renewable energy sources in Algeria
Renewable energy sources such as: Solar, wind, Biomass and geothermal are clean sources of energy, represent a potential market for renewable energy technologies, offer greener alternatives that have minimal-to-zero carbon emissions and are consequently less detrimental to the environment than conventional energy. Due to its geographical location and its strategic position in the field of energy, Algeria is perfectly placed to play a leading role in the lucrative future solar and wind power industries. The coming years hold much promise for clean energies. The interest and political support for the development of renewable energies have been growing continuously both at the national and international level. Algeria has introduced laws and regulations aimed at promoting renewable energy to introduce an effort for restraining energy demand and improve environmental conditions. Renewable energies are now one of the major elements of Algerias energy policy. The implementation of various projects allows Algeria to play an important role not only in the North Africa countries but also in the Europe. This keynote speech presents a review of the current situation of renewable energy in Algeria and its huge potential which their exploitation becomes important and very interesting, the assessment and the national policy for the promotion and development of renewable energies which aims to increase the contribution of renewable energy sources in the national energy balance sheet, as well as encourage the use of higher efficiency energy systems. The analysis of the present renewable energy situation and future objective will be presented.
Al-Nahrain University Baghdad, IraqThe Management of Vast Solar Farm Via a Power Line Communication Modem Design
This lecture will discuss the utilization of Power Line Communication (PLC) modem design which can control data flow with a new networking strategy to propagate signals for long distance without the need of extra cable or signal repeaters. An investigation is also carried on the use of twin-core power cables in vast solar farm for controlling solar trackers and data acquisition purposes. Frequency responses of this type of power line are analysed and tested according to different practical coupling strategies. The proposed design of the PLC modem is based on channel characteristics, data flow control strategy, collision avoidance techniques and error detection.
Chalmers University of Technology, Building Services Engineering, Gothenburg, SwedenDesign and simulation of ground source heat pump systems
The worldwide use of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems to provide heating and cooling in buildings has increased manifolds over the last decade. At present, the total energy use of GSHP systems exceeds 200,000 TJ/year. The most common application of a GSHP system is with vertical borehole heat exchangers. The ground may be used as a heat source, a heat sink or as a heat storage medium by means of vertical borehole heat exchangers. Over the years various analytical and numerical models of varying complexity have been developed and used as design and simulation tools for vertical borehole heat exchangers. Analytical models are attractive in terms of computational efficiency and offer better flexibility for parameterized design. Numerical models, on the other hand, are usually preferred to obtain exacter solutions in research and parametric analysis.
This presentation first provides a state-of-the-art review of analytical and numerical models for the vertical borehole heat exchangers. It then details and compares various available methods for design and simulation of a complete GSHP system. The strengths and limitations of the existing methods are highlighted from design and simulation point of view. Finally, a simple approach developed by the author for modelling and simulation of small- to medium-sized GSHP systems is presented. The proposed method can be implemented in any building energy simulation software to simulate the performance of a GSHP system in time scales from minutes to years.
Department of Environmental & Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece, Athens, GreeceSolar energy technologies for building integrated applications Alternative and sustainable solar energy technologies are urgently needed to replace conventional energy consuming systems like air-conditioning and mitigate micro-climate changes like the urban heat island. In addition, the transition to low energy buildings cannot be accomplished without advances in both science and technology and the large scale development of innovative systems. In this context, solar energy systems are very attractive due to the excess of unused solar flux impinging the building. Active and passive solar technologies need to be of small capacity, simple, low cost and friendly in their operation and maintenance. In this direction, cooling systems and photovoltaics, integrated in the building envelope even from the design phase, are considered to be among the most promising solutions. In this course, the state of the art and emerging technologies for building integrated solar cooling, photovoltaic production of energy and multifunctional environmental processes will be presented.
Gazi University, Technology Faculty, Dep. Electrical Electronics Engineering, Ankara, Turkey
Electric Vehicles and Standardisation
This presentation will be on electrical vehicle (EV) which is new field and area that developments and standardization activities moving into. It is therefore important that the principles for designing electric vehicles, the relevant technological and environmental issues should be thoroughly understood. In recent years standardization in the field of electric vehicles is becoming an important issue. The need for clean energy and the support provided by smart grids have led to new European policies that encourage the deployment of infrastructures to recharge/replace the batteries of electrical vehicles. In the standardisation work of electric vehicles there are several performing actors: automotive and component manufacturers, energy suppliers, and others like user groups or government agencies. In order for EVs to be broadly successful, the following challenges must be successfully addressed: safety, affordability, interoperability, performance and environmental impact.
Department of Advanced Electrical Systems, Transilvania University of Brasov, RomaniaStand alone and grid connected microgrids control The course is focused on control requirements for MicroGrids. RES based MicroGrids are considered to be the basic components which will help to the development of nowadays Utility Grids toward the Smart and Distributed Grids. In order to properly insert MicroGrids into the Utility Grids Automatic control has to be developed. The principle of automatic control and some important feature defining control properties such as power flow control, power quality issues (frequency, voltage, storage, and harmonics content), islanding and protections are discussed.
Gazi University, Technology Faculty, Dep. Electrical Electronics Engineering, Ankara, TurkeyAnalyses and Measurements of the Permanent Magnet (PM) Wind Energy Generators
The explorations on different types of wind energy generators increase world-widely in order to find out much efficient, easy-constructed machines. In this manner, while many efforts have been spent on modeling the new flux topologies, the material features, cogging torque and phase voltage ripples have been some of the most important problems. Since the generators with multiple stator or rotor components have higher energy densities compared to the other commercial generator systems, a special interest is given to them. In terms of electromagnetic modeling, finite element analysis (FEA) is widely used to estimate the best design of a proposed machine. In addition, optimization technique plays an important role to provide a complete picture of the machine. In addition, comparison of experimental findings with the theoretical findings is vital. At this point, one requires to clarify some characteristics of the machine such as phase voltage, current, magnetic flux, air gap fields, power and cogging torque as function of rotation rate (i.e. velocity) and compare them experimentally and theoretically. In this course, some results with regard to both experimental and theoretical analyses will be discussed. The responses of different field topologies will be explained.
Energy efficiency of linear oscillating electrical machines using resonance frequency tracking
The course is dedicated to the control and modelling of special electrical machines of linear oscillating movement. The usage of such machines reduces the weight, power losses in mechanical transmissions in linear (or sometimes and rotational) movement mechanisms, optimises the machine design, but to reduce the energy consumption even more the resonance frequency of the system might be used. So this course will supply the knowledge of the types of special electrical machines, their optimized designs, resonance frequency estimation, control systems design, control methods, and algorithms. Also the modelling of such systems is presented using Matlab programme.
University of Pitesti, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electronics Engineering, Arges, RomaniaEnergy harvesting from the renewable and green energy sources
Maximum Power Point (MPP) tracking technique is proposed for the Fuel Cell (FC) stacks based on a modified Extremum Seeking (mES) control that slightly improves the performances of the classical ES control schemes. A higher value of the search speed obtained for the same tracking accuracy is demonstrated for the proposed mES control in comparison with the classical ES control schemes. The analysis made for the mES control in frequency domain reveals interesting relationships to design the control parameters, the values of closed loop gain and the dither amplitude, to obtain the imposed performance related to the search speed and tracking accuracy. The search speed will increase proportionally with the product of both control parameters, so it is practically limited for safe reasons. Finally, in the dynamical operation of the FC stack, a higher loop gain means a shorter time to catch the next MPP. Simulations show that the performances mentioned above are effective for the mES control based on a band pass filter scheme.
Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering, Istanbul, TurkeyThe Compact Processes Effectively Using of Solar Energy in Long Time Schedules
The lecture aims to provide the understanding and developing abilities of solar energy in a way involving both of compactness of the system and effectively using. Transferring to the electrical energy and widen systematically application technologies will be considered with a point of view contributing the effectively usage approaches. The lecture will begin with a brief summary of the principles of solar energy, solar radiation and measurements, the solar radiation maps of Earth, semiconductor physics, semiconductor-electrolyte junctions and transfer reactions, molecular electronics, organic semiconductors, semiconductor solar cells, the materials for photo-electrochemical batteries, organic solar cells, and storage of solar energy. The microwave resonator-antenna structures suitable for solar energy conversion will be studied. This last topic focuses on both of the nanoelectromagnetic and metamaterial applications. The lecture will focus on the questions about the limits and boundaries of the solar energy. Possible conflicts between the natural processes and technological applications will be discussed. Theoretical approaches will be introduced addressing the question on designing the compact and effective systems for solar energy applications.
Gazi University, Technology Faculty, Dep. Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ankara, TurkeyCurrent welding technologies in renewable energy systems
In this lecture, an introduction to welding techniques and current welding technologies in renewable energy system has been presented. Then an experimental study on the use of hydrogen gas in the field of welding has been explained. The goal of the study is to investigate to use the oxy-hydrogen welding technique in the welding of aluminum. Specimen dimensions are 1.5mm in thickness and 80mm in length. Optical microscopy investigations on the cross-sectional area of the weld zone are also carried out in order to compare weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) depending on the welding gases. Tensile strength and hardness tests of welded specimens are carried out and the obtained results are compared. Although test results have shown that the yield strength of the samples welded with oxy-acetylene is higher than that of the samples welded with oxy-hydrogen, oxy-hydrogen welding technique was satisfactorily.
Yeditepe University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul, TurkeyVibration energy harvesting
Energy harvesting, also known as energy scavenging, is a process of obtaining electrical energy from sources already present in the environment, such as wind energy, solar energy, bio-thermal, etc. The increase in the usage of wireless devices that require a small amount of electrical power encourages the research on energy harvesting day by day. Among environmental energy sources, mechanical vibrations arouse significant interest, due to its abundance. The harvesters that utilize vibration energy are predicted to be used in many applications such as wireless sensors networks and structural health monitoring. This course will provide an overview on the theory of energy harvesting from vibrations, together with its current and prospective applications. An in-depth introduction on several challenges in vibration energy harvesting systems will be discussed as well.
Yildiz Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul, TurkeyPower Converters for Renewable Energy Applications
Power converters are the heart of the power conversion. Alternative current (AC) to direct current (DC), DC to AC, AC to AC and DC to DC power transformation is possible with power converters. By using power converters, we can change current and voltage shape (sinozoidal or square), magnitude, frequency and also we can seperate input and output load by isolation like transformers. For this reasons, semiconductors and diodes are used to control power convertion. In this lecture, semiconductor and diode structure will be explained. Basic power converters will be shown to underestand AC-DC or DC-AC power convertion. And finally, power converter applications for renewable energy sources will be demonstrated with Powersim simulation programme.
University of Pitesti, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electronics Engineering, Arges, RomaniaShadows effect on solar panels functionality
When deciding to install a solar photovoltaic system, the positioning of the solar panels is vital. It is pretty obvious that the solar panels should be orientated such that they face the sun at the time of day when the sun is highest in the sky; but a secondary important consideration is shading . If even a small section of a photovoltaic panel is shaded - for example by the branch of a tree - there is a very significant drop in power output from the panel. This is because a PV solar panel is made up of a string of individual solar cells connected in series with one another . The current output from the whole panel is limited to that passing through the weakest link cell. If one cell (out of for example 36 in a panel) is completely shaded, the power output from the panel will fall to zero. If one cell is 50% shaded, then the power output from the whole panel will fall by 50% - a very significant drop for such a small area of shading.
Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ankara, TurkeyTopology options and sizing of photovoltaic & diesel hybrid power systems
As a result of the continuous increase in demand and the rise in energy costs, new energy sources and new topology options are being investigated. The aim is minimize the need for fossil fuels and reduce operating costs. Carbon emissions will be reduced to the realization of this situation. Production of electrical energy from photovoltaic modules can be used in almost every region of the earth. PV power source can be designed from miliwatt to megawatt range. For these important reasons, solar energy has become the most widely used renewable energy source on the earth.
Daily energy consumption can spread to the entire day together getting different values. However, photovoltaic systems can produce electricity only when there is sunlight. In the off grid applications, battery groups are used as main source to ensure continuity of energy to the loads. The case of long-term absence of sunlight, new solutions must be present in order to ensure the continuity of the system's energy.
Increase battery Ah capacity, Increase the number of parallel branches, Diesel generator support,
Batteries are expensive and limited life components of any system. To increase the battery Ah capacity or number of parallel arms may not be an optimum selection. Diesel generators are well known backup sources and can be found any country for at a reasonable price. The combination of these sources is preferred in many applications including some microgrids. The use of PV and diesel hybrid structures in remote islands from the mainland or in rural areas is good options as a main power source.
Gazi University, Technology Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ankara, TurkeyModelling and Control of PMSG Based Wind Turbine
A conventional wind energy conversion system (WECS) consists of three basic parts: wind turbines, electric generator, and power electronic system. The mechanical energy obtained from wind with the help of wind turbines is transferred to the electric generator via gearbox or gearless connection. Role of the electric generators is to produce electric power from the mechanical energy. With the advances of power electronic technologies and permanent magnet materials, there have been great interests to direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) among wind turbine manufactures. In this course, participants will learn modelling and control of the PMSG based wind turbine after a brief instruction to wind turbine systems. In the course mathematical models of the PMSG and power electronic converters will be created and then simulation models will be constructed. Finally simulation results will be analysed. In the course participants will also learn how does an experimental set build up? and how can it be controlled?
University of Gaziantep, Mechanical Engineering Department, 27310, Gaziantep, TurkeyInsulation and New Technologies
One of the major causes for global warming can be attributed to the activities of man. An increase in the so called greenhouse gases which include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide etc., which prevents the reflection of the rays from sun and thus causes the increase in temperature is getting higher and higher as the day goes on. Another is the CFC (carbure fluoro-chlorique) which is used in refrigerators, in fire extinguisher's which destroys the natural ozone layer.
By means of the regulations on Insulation according to TS 825 (Standars of Thermal Insulation in Buildings), there is a potential of 30-50% energy saving in buildings, which decrease the consumption of energy and as a result decrease the rising of global warming. Insulation has proved to be effective and beneficial because of reducing energy costs, safety of personnel working in hot applications, providing home comfort control and temperature control in processing equipment, assisting in the reduction of air pollution, reducing the consumption of natural resources and reducing noise pollution.
The approximate sectorial distributions of the energy consumed in Turkey can be introduced in terms of sectorial areas such as 42% in industry, 30% in residence, 20% in transportation, 5% in agriculture and 3% in others. It is seen that the total energy consumption for both industry and residence is about 75%. Therefore a perfect insulation should be applied in such areas in order to save this huge amount of energy. Depending on the building structures and the utilized insulation techniques, it is possible to save energy by using thermal insulation. Thus a three-dimensional advantage of thermal insulation such as energy saving, decrease in air pollution and thermal comfort is provided. However, to perform a well-done insulation; the theory, the applications and techniques, the key parts and the new technologies in insulation should be well understood.